Influence of 3-in-2 milking frequency on dairy emissions

Whole farm systems analysis from the WFSAM project

This study explored the greenhouse gas emissions of two Tasmanian dairy farms that have implemented the 3-in-2 milking frequency practice, where the herd is milked 3 times over a 2-day period, rather than twice a day. The practice is typically implemented to reduce labour demands, reduce dairy consumables, maintenance and resources, and improve cow performance, though its impact on emissions was unknown.

The results suggest that the emissions intensity of milk production in a 3-in-2 system are similar to that found in other Australian studies where cows were milked twice a day for the duration of their lactation. The researchers concluded that converting to the 3-in-2 practice will not contribute to increased greenhouse gas emissions per unit of milk production.

Key researchers

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Project Status


Project Leadership

Dr Christie Ho
  • Dr Christie Ho
  • Senior Research Scientist
  • Agriculture Victoria

Richard Eckard
  • Professor Richard Eckard
  • Director
  • Primary Industries Climate Challenges Centre

Richard Rawnsley
  • Dr Richard Rawnsley
  • Senior Research Scientist
  • Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture

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Project Team

  • Dr Brendan Cullen
    University of Melbourne
  • Dr Matthew Harrison
    Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture
  • Dr Alexandria Sinnett
    Agriculture Victoria
  • Karen Christie
    Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture
  • Natalie Doran-Browne
    University of Melbourne

Funding Organisations

  • Agriculture Victoria
  • Australian Wool Innovation Limited
  • Dairy Australia
  • Department of Agriculture and Water Resources
  • Meat and Livestock Australia
  • Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture
  • University of Melbourne

Collaborating Organisations

  • Agriculture Victoria
  • Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture